Tuesday, 22 November 2011

Eliza Haywood Played By Emma Thompson

According to Myheritage.com's facial recognition system, the celebrity who looks most like Eliza Haywood is Emma Thompson. So, when the story of Haywood's like is turned into a film, we know who we need to get to play the part!

As you can the fit is only 63%, but the likeness is striking. It would be even more striking if Emma were to put on a few kilos, which would make her face a little less angular. Here are a few more images that help to show the likeness.

[UPDATE: 2 July 2016: After all my pictures disappeared again I decided to give up on external hosts for large versions (1000px) of my image files and, for now on, will stick with the smaller images (500px), which Blogger is prepared to host.]

Thursday, 10 November 2011

The History of Miss Leonora Meadowson

Haywood's The History of Miss Leonora Meadowson is a fascinating and curious work for many reasons. I invested an enormous amount of time in searching for a copy—or, indeed, any trace—of Leonora Meadowson; and when I did find a copy at the Fales library in New York it was one of the major milestones in my Haywood research. My first conference paper (at the 1999 BSANZ Conference), and my first published article, were also on "Eliza Haywood's last ('lost') work."

After my 1999 article the discoveries continued, when I realised that Leonora Meadowson was a revision of Cleomelia, making it one of a tiny number of examples of Haywood revising one of her works, and it was one of the key pieces of evidence tying the death(?) of Haywood's daughter-in-law to 2 Cowley Street in Westminster in 1788.

Since my Bibliography was printed in 2004 I have continued to search for references to this work in particular. Every time a new resource becomes available I use it to trawl for something I might have missed, but so far my finds have hardly been noteworthy.

On ECCO I found two bookseller's catalogues which contained copies of Leonora Meadowson. These are: Sael's Catalogue for 1792 (London: G. Sael, Bookseller, at the English Library, Newcastle Street, Strand, [1792]), 120 (no. 3284), "History of Miss Leonora Meadowson, 2 vols. h[alf]. b[ound]. new, 3s 6d" and Lackington, Allen, & Co.'s Catalogue, vol. 1 [Michaelmas 1798–99] (London: Lackington, Allen, & Co., Booksellers, Temple of the Muses, Finsbury-Square, [1798]), 116 (no. 4512): "Leonora Meadowson, a Novel, 2 vols. new, half bound 3s 4d 1788".

On the Burney newspaper text-base I found only one new advertisement, in The World, 11 July 1788, issue 479, from five months after the release of the book (see below). And on Google Books I found another bookseller's catalogue and advertisement. The catalogue is A Catalogue of Books in John Harding's Circulating Library, in the Market-Place, Abingdon, Berkshire ([Abingdon: John Harding], 1804), 37 (no. 617–18): "Leonora Meadowson, 2 vols. 5s." (the price being the replacement cost, as set out in clause IV of the terms of subscription); the advertisement appears in The British Mercury; Or, Annals of History, Politics…, 4:10 (3 March 1788): 318 "New Books … Leonora Meadowson. A Novel, 2 vol. Pr. 5s."

The geographical spread of these last two finds is interesting, particularly The British Mercury, which was edited by Johann Wilhelm von Archenholz in Hamburg. The British Mercury contained a digest of political and literary news from England and information about works available in Hamburg.

* * * * *

My recent discovery of a copy of Leonora Meadowson in another circulating library is much more important than the above—because the circulating library in question was in New York and it is possible that the unique Fale's copy of Leonora Meadowson is the same copy as that recorded as being held in Louis Alexis Hocquet de Caritat's Circulating Library in an 1804 catalogue.

In 1940 George Gates Raddin, the owner of one of only two surviving copies of this 1804 catalogue, published an annotated Checklist of the Fiction in H. Caritat's Circulating Library. He then published a series of studies of Caritat in very limited editions. Two of these studies are: The New York of Hocquet Caritat and his Associates, 1797–1817 and Hocquet Caritat and the Early New York Literary Scene. I have the checklist in front of me, and have put in loan requests for the other two studies.

According to Raddin's An Early New York Library of Fiction: With a Checklist of the Fiction in H. Caritat's Circulating Library, no. 1 City hotel, Broadway, New York, 1804 (New York: H. W. Wilson Co., 1940), 66, Haywood was reasonably well-represented in Caritat's Circulating Library. The following five works are listed:

[1] Ab.68.4 The History of Jemmy and Jenny Jessamy, New ed. (1769) [Raddin locates a copy at MBU, but it does not appear on their online catalogue.]

[2] Ab.35.2 The History of Miss Leonora Meadowson

[3] Ab.69.6 The Invisible Spy, New ed. (1773).

[4] Aa.3.3 Secret Histories, Novel and Poems, 4th ed. (1742)—although "Caritat lists a 1-vol. ed." suggesting the set was incomplete.

[5] Ab.70.1 The Wife (1756).

Raddin was unable to locate a copy of Leonora Meadowson, so he quotes the entry from the 1804 catalogue in full ("History of Miss LENORA MEADOWSON, a novel, 2 vols"). What is not clear is if Leonora Meadowson appeared in any of the earlier Caritat catalogues. Of these there were at least two in English, the three being:

[1799] The Feast of Reason and the Flow of the Soul. A New Explanatory Catalogue of H. Caritat's General & Increasing Circulating Library (New York: M. L. & W. A. Davis, 1799) [ESTC: W27154; two copies (MWA, NN)].

[1803] A Catalogue of the Library of H. Caritat's Literary Room, New-York (New York: Isaac Collins & Son, 1803).

[1804] Explanatory Catalogue of H. Caritat's Circulating Library; no.I. City Hotel, Broad-Way, New-York (New York: G. & R. Waite, 1804).

Unfortunately, the nearest copy of an original of any of these is 7800 miles according to WorldCat! All of these are available online in the Early American imprints database, but not to me, so I am going to have to ask a colleague to look at them for me to establish when Caritat might have acquired his copy of Leonora Meadowson.

As for when he disposed of it: in 1804 Caritat sold the library to Isaac Riley, who soon after went bankrupt. What happened after that isn't clear. Yet. I hope to find out more about the fate of Caritat's books from Raddin's two histories. But presumably the library was sold, piecemeal. And, having been sold, it looks like this copy of Leonora Meadowson stayed put in New York until about 1970 when it was (mis)catalogued at the Fales library.

Of course, the Fales copy may not be the Caritat copy—in fact, the lovely condition of the Fale's copy argues against it—but so few copies of Leonora Meadowson are recorded that it is even more improbable that two copies made it to New York in the 1790s.

Wednesday, 9 November 2011

T. L. on Memoirs of Utopia in 1757

The following note and editorial addition, concerning Haywood's Memoirs of a Certain Island Adjacent to the Kingdom of Utopia, appears in The Critical Review; Or, Annals of Literature 4 (November 1757): 272.

To the Author of the Critical Review.

  LAST winter a book called Modern Lovers was published, pr. 3 s. but in fact was only part of The Memoirs of Utopia. This month the same publisher has exhibited a book called Prostitutes of Quality, which is likewise extracted from Memoirs of Utopia, and yesterday a book was published, called Memoirs of B— Tracey, which in fact is only a part of an absence book, called A History of the Human Heart, which is not fit to be read by the public.

Nov. 26, 1757.
      Your obedient servant,
            T. L.

N. B. The authors of The Critical Review are obliged to T. L. for the above letter; and should be obliged to him for the same sort of information hereafter; for they would heartily join him in detecting such notorious and infamous impositions on the public.

* * * * *

The works mentioned are:

[1] Modern Lovers; Or, The Adventures of Cupid, the God of Love: A Novel (London: Printed for J. Cooke, at the King’s-Arms, in Great-Turnstile, Holbourn, 1756); ESTC: t66385.

[2] Prostitutes of Quality; Or, Adultery รก-la-mode. Being Authentic and Genuine Memoirs of Several Persons of the Highest Quality (London: Printed for J. Cooke, and J. Coote, opposite Devereux-Court, in the Strand, 1757); ESTC: t46030.

[3] Memoirs of B— Tracey [aka The Notorious Libertine; Or, The Adventures of B----- Tracey] (London: Printed for J. King, in Great Turnstile, Holborn, [1757]); ESTC: t118902.

[4] A History of the Human Heart; Or, The Adventures of a Young Gentleman (London: Printed for J. Freeman, 1749); ESTC: n17696.

Neither Modern Lovers nor Prostitutes of Quality is, in fact, "only part of The Memoirs of Utopia"—as a search of the three texts makes clear—and the two later works are not related to each other either. And if Memoirs of B— Tracey is "in fact is only a part of" A History of the Human Heart, it is a very large part, the former being 214 pages compared to the latter's 314—but it looks like "T. L." missed the mark here too.

What is interesting, however, is to see someone identifying all of these works to each other and as "not fit to be read by the public"! That is, The Memoirs of Utopia = Authentic and Genuine Memoirs of Lovers, Prostitutes and Notorious Libertines = porn.

I really haven't a clue what "an absence book" is, unless this is Latinate pun with Ab- and Sense: Ab- being a prefix meaning "off, away, from" and, therefore, absence could be synonymous with something like "senseless." But this is a stretch. If there is an accepted meaning of this word/phrase, I am not familiar with, and neither are the editors of the OED.

Friday, 4 November 2011

Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots

The title-page of Eliza Haywood's Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots (1725) claims that the work was "Translated from the French," though her "Introduction" says nothing of it being a translation. When I drafted my entry on this title I suggested that it was "more likely that Haywood wrote an original work that relied heavily on French materials." It looks like I was wrong about this.

Mary Helen McMurran has identified Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots as another translation of Pierre Le Pesant, Sieur de Boisguillebert, Marie Stuart, Reyne d’Escosse. Nouvelle Historique (Paris: Claude Barbin, 1675). I say another because James Freebairn’s translation of this work was proposed in June 1724 and issued "for the Author" in Edinburgh in 1725. That is, Haywood and Freebairn’s translations were competitors.

McMurran makes her case well and does an excellent job of comparing the two translations in The Spread of Novels: Translation and Prose Fiction in the Eighteenth Century (Princeton, 2010). Although I am disappointed that I "missed" this identification, I only missed it in the sense that I ought to have recognised the similarities of the Haywood and Freebairn’s translations, no scholar previous to 2004 having made the identification. That is, McMurran deserves full credit for making the attribution and will have it in the second edition of my Bibliography!

It is particularly pleasing to see work being done on Haywood's translations and the translation of works by Haywood into European languages. (I have mentioned before that Melbourne's Aleksondra Hultquist is doing important work on Haywood's La Belle Assemblee; see here.) No doubt, as this type of scholarship develops, more of Haywood's sources will be revealed but we will also get a much clearer idea of Haywood's creative input into her translations—as we do in McMurran's section on Haywood (82–90).