Friday, 2 October 2020

Eliza Haywood Criticism Online

I previously maintained the list below of free, online Eliza Haywood criticism on the same page as my list of 18C and 19C editions of the works by Eliza Haywood (here). Since both lists have grown considerably since 2009, when I started the lists, I have decided to move this list of articles, chapters, theses etc. here.

I have not yet updated the list, but will do so as I get a chance. If readers of this blog find any dead links, please let me know. And if readers (or authors) know of any thesis, chapter or article not listed here, which ought to be, please let me know about this also.

(BTW: For contemporary and early reviews of works by Haywood, see here; for contemporary and early criticism and commentary on Haywood, see here. For an extensive online Haywood bibliography (up to 5 July 2005), see here.])

Chelo de Andrés Martinez, "[Review of] Juliette Merritt, Beyond Spectacle: Eliza Haywood's Female Spectators. University of Toronto Press, 2004," on [also Medieval Feminist Forum, vol. 44, no. 1, p. 16. 2008.]

Scott Black, "Trading Sex for Secrets in Haywood's Love in Excess," on [also Eighteenth-Century Fiction 15, no. 2 (2003): 207–26.]

Emily Kathryn Booth, "Eliza Haywood's Feigning Femmes Fatale: Desirous and Deceptive Women in Fantomina, Love in Excess, and The History of Miss Betsy Thoughtless." (MA thesis, East Tennessee State University, 2001).

Claire Boulard-Jouslin, Augustus Caesar to Livia Drusilla’: théorie(s) de l’Histoire dans le Female Spectator Études Épistémè 17 (2010): 87–104.

Amy Thomas Campion, "Scandalous Figures: Authorial Self in Eliza Haywood, Laurence Sterne, Charlotte Smith, and Lord Byron." (PhD thesis, University of California, 2010). ¶ NB Ch.2. "Scandal: Eliza Haywood’s Chameleon Self" (ibid. 18–58).

Rachel K. Carnell, "It's not easy being green: Gender and friendship in Eliza Haywood's political periodicals," on [also in Eighteenth-Century Studies, vol. 32, no. 2 (1998): 199–214.]

Rachel K. Carnell, "Eliza Haywood and the Narratological Tropes of Secret History," on [also in Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies, vol. 14, no. 4 (2014): 101–21.]

Claudia Chibici-Revneanu, "Genius and the Construction of 'the inferior female creator': The Case of Eliza Haywood," Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, vol. 7, no. 3 (2015).

Sarah R. Creell, "[Review of] Carol Stewart (ed.), The Rash Resolve and Life's Progress," on [also ABO: Interactive Journal for Women in the Arts, 1640–1830, vol. 4, no. 1 (2014).]

Anna Davison, "Bridging the Gap: Defining and Deciphering the Female Heroine in Eliza Haywood’s The History of Miss Betsy Thoughtless," Courtship and Catastrophe: Negotiating the Classical and Contemporary Marriage Plot (2009): 41–57.

Emily Joan Dowd, "Evoking The Salon: Eliza Haywood's The Female Spectator [and] The Conversation of Protofeminist Space" (PhD Theses; Florida State University, 2010).

Joseph Drury, "Haywood's thinking machines," on [also in Eighteenth-Century Fiction, vol. 21, no. 2 (2008): 201–28.]

Paula Kay Fitzgerald, "'A Scribbling Dame' Eliza Haywood's literary reputation and the Female Spectator." (MA thesis, California State University, 2006).

Joanna Elizabeth Fowler, "Theorizing voice and perspective in the narratives of Eliza Haywood and her contemporaries" (PhD thesis, Loughborough University, 2010).

Patsy S. Fowler, "Rhetorical Strategy and the 'Dangerous Woman-Poet': Eliza Haywood and the Politics of Self-Promotion" in Prologues, Epilogues, Curtain-Raisers, and Afterpieces: The Rest of the Eighteenth-Century London Stage, edited by Daniel James Ennis and Judith Bailey Slagle (University of Delaware Press, 2007), 179–97.

Amrita Ghosh, "Masquerade as a Strategy: Eliza Haywood’s The Masqueraders or The Fatal Curiosity: Being the Secret History of a Late Amour," The Criterion 4.3 (June 2013).

Suzanne B. Gibson, "The Eighteenth-Century Oriental Tales of Eliza Haywood, Frances Sheridan and Ellis Cornelia Knight" (PhD Theses; McMaster University, 1996). Paper 2316.

Andrea K. Gill, Objectifying Men: Gulliver’s Travels, Fantomina, and the Dildo in Eighteenth-Century Literature Pursuit: The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee 2:1 (2011).

Kristin M. Girten, "[review of] A Political Biography of Eliza Haywood, by Kathryn R. King" ABO: Interactive Journal for Women in the Arts, 1640–1830 3:1 (2013), Article 10.

Jennifer L. Hargrave, "'To the Glory of the Chinese:' Sinocentric Political Reform in Eliza Haywood's The Adventures of Eovaai, on [also Eighteenth-Century Studies, vol. 49, no. 1 (2015): 31–50.]

Eileen A. Horansky, "Sexualizing Politics: The Rhetorics of Sexuality and Political Satire in the Works of Eliza Haywood" (Conference Presentation, October 2014), on

Genevieve Howard, "Equal Performances: An Exploration of Eliza Haywood's Depiction of Hillarian Ideals in Fantomina," (MA thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, 2015).

Aleksondra Hultquist, "Haywood's Re-Appropriation of the Amatory Heroine in Betsy Thoughtless," on [also Philological Quarterly, vol. 85, no. 1/2 (2006): 141–65.]

Marisa C. Iglesias, "Secret servants: Household domestics and courtship in Eliza Haywood's fiction" (MA thesis, University of South Florida, 2008).

Catherine Ingrassia, Texts, Lies and the Marketplace: Eliza Haywood and the Literary Marketplace at Mid-Century (1995)

Catherine Ingrassia, "'Queering' Eliza Haywood", on [also Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies, vol. 14, no. 4 (2014): 9–24.]

Kathryn R. King, "New Contexts for Early Novels by Women: The Case of Eliza Haywood, Aaron Hill, and the Hillarians, 1719–1725" in A Companion to the Eighteenth-Century English Novel and Culture, ed. Paula R. Backscheider, Catherine Ingrassia (2009), 261–75.

Marta Kvande, "The Outsider Narrator in Eliza Haywood's Political Novels", on [also SEL Studies in English Literature 1500–1900, vol. 43, no. 3 (2003): 625–43.]

Joy LaFrance, "Whenever we would truly conquer, we must seem to yield: Eliza Haywood's Fantomina and subversive fiction for women" (MA Theses; Lehigh University, 2003).

Tesi di Laurea, "A Present for a Servant-Maid: Eliza Haywood and the Conduct Book Tradition" (Bachelor's thesis, Università Ca'Foscari Venezia, 2013).

Kate Levin, "'The Only Beguiled Person'?: Accessing Fantomina in the Feminist Classroom," ABO: Interactive Journal for Women in the Arts, 1640-1830 2:1 (March 2012).

Kathleen Lubey, "Eliza haywood's amatory aesthetic," on [also Eighteenth-Century Studies 39, no. 3 (2006): 309–22.]

Holly Rae Luhning, "'Manacles of Madness: Haywood's The Distress'd Orphan; Or Love in A Madhouse," eSharp 8 (Autumn 2006).

Holly Rae Luhning, "A Crafted Debut: Haywood’s Love in Excess and the Literary Marketplace." Lumen, vol. 28 (2009): 97–110.

Holly Rae Luhning, "Entertainment and Didacticism: Eliza Haywood’s The Unequal Conflict and Fatal Fondness." Lumen, vol. 29 (2010): 161–174.

L. Lutsenko, "Eliza Haywood's Intrusive Practices from the Perspective of Feminist Narratology.", 2014, no. 5 (2014): 80–83.

Cameron McFarlane, "Equal Ardour: Gender and the Ideal Relationship in Eliza Haywood's Amatory Fiction." (PhD thesis, McMaster University, 1991.

Kelly McGuire, "Mourning and Material Culture in Eliza Haywood's The History of Miss Betsy Thoughtless," on [also Eighteenth Century Fiction, vol. 18, no. 3 (2006): 281–304.]

Juliette Merritt, "Beyond Spectacle: Eliza Haywood's Female Spectators" (PhD Theses; McMaster University, 1998). Paper 2140.

Juliette Merritt, "'That Devil Curiosity Which Too Much Haunts the Minds of Women': Eliza Haywood's Female Spectators," on [also Lumen Selected Proceedings from the Canadian Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies, vol. 16 (1997).]

María Jesús Lorenzo Modía, "The Female Spectator: an experiment in women's press in the eighteenth century," on [also in The Grove: Working Papers on English Studies, no. 5 (1998).]

Susan Vida Muse, "Gender Politics in the Novels of Eliza Haywood," (PhD thesis, Marquette University, 2012).

Douglas A. Northrop, "Gender Politics in the Novels of Eliza Haywood," Proceedings of the 14th Northern Plains Conference on Earlier British Literature, April 7–8, 2006, edited by Bruce E. Brandt and Michael S. Nagy (Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University, 2006), 87–93.

Leah Orr, "The Basis for Attribution in the Canon of Eliza Haywood," on [also The Library, vol. 12, no. 4 (2011): 335–75.]

John Richetti, "Histories by Eliza Haywood and Henry Fielding: Imitation and Adaptation," on [also in The Passionate Fictions of Eliza Haywood: Essays on Her Life and Work, edited by Kirsten T. Saxton and Rebecca P. Bocchicchio (2000), 240–58.]

Laura J. Rosenthal, "Eliza Haywood: Discrepant Cosmopolitanism and the Persistence of Romance," NineteenthCentury Gender Studies, vol. 3, no. 2 (Summer 2007).

Jonathan Sadow, "The Puppet Show Conundrum: Haywood and the 'Fittest Entertainment for the Present Age'," Digital Defoe, vol. 5, no. 1 (2013): 121–20.

Kirsten T. Saxton and Rebecca P. Bocchicchio, eds., The Passionate Fictions of Eliza Haywood: Essays on her Life and Work (2000).

Orla Smyth, ""Fashioning Fictional Selves from French Sources: Eliza Haywood’s Love in Excess," on [also in The ‘self’: theories and representations in “Great Britain in the long eighteenth century, ed. Marion Leclair and Allan Ingram (Manchester University Press, forthcoming in 2017)].

Patrick Spedding, "Eliza Haywood’s last ('lost') work: The History of Miss Leonora Meadowson (1788)," Bibliographical Society of Australia and New Zealand Bulletin, vol. 23, no.3 (1999): 131–47. PDF (poor quality) online on BSANZ website.

Patrick Spedding, "Shameless Scribbler or Votary of Virtue? Eliza Haywood, Writing (and) Pornography in 1742," in Women Writing: 1550–1750, edited by Jo Wallwork and Paul Salzman (2001), 237–51. PDF on Monash Explore.

Patrick Spedding, "Measuring the Success of Haywood’s Female Spectator (1744–46)," in Fair Philosopher: Eliza Haywood and the Female Spectator, edited by Lynn Marie Wright and Donald J. Newman (2006), 193–211. PDF on Monash Explore; and on

Patrick Spedding, "Eliza Haywood at the Sign of Fame," 1650–1850: Ideas, Aesthetics and Inquiries in the Early Modern Era, vol. 18 (2011): 29–55. Copy on Monash Repository.

Patrick Spedding, "Eliza Haywood’s Eighteenth-Century Readers in Pennsylvania and New York," Australian Humanities Review, vol. 56 (May 2014): 69–120. Copy on publisher’s site; and on

Patrick Spedding, "Twice-Told Tales in Eliza Haywood's Leonora Meadowson," Notes and Queries, vol. 63, no. 4 (8 October 2016): 619–22. Available here.

LaShea Simmons Stuart, "The Arbitress of Passion and of Contract: Eliza Haywood and the Legality of Love" (PhD Thesis, Auburn University, 2006).

Shea Stuart, "Subversive Didacticism in Eliza Haywood's Betsy Thoughtless," on [also in SEL Studies in English Literature 1500–1900, vol. 42, no. 3 (2002): 559–75.]

Rivka Swenson, "Optics, Gender, and the Eighteenth-Century Gaze: Looking at Eliza Haywood's Anti-Pamela," on [also in The Eighteenth Century, vol. 51, no. 1 (2010): 27–43.]

Camelia Teglaş, "
The Complexity of the Self in Eliza Haywood's Adventures of Eovaai," on [also in Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai-Philologia, vol. 2 (2015): 157–67.]

Marina Estevão Tiago, "Eliza Haywood’s Love in Excess–figuring women, subverting conventions, in Studies in Identity (2009): 17–29.

Martin Wells, "The Hypocrisy of Moral Outrage in The Dunciad: Eliza Haywood’s Persecuted Virtue and Alexander Pope the Persecutor," Alfred: An undergraduate student journal 3 (2011): 19–24.

Lynn Marie Wright and Donald J. Newman, eds., Fair Philosopher: Eliza Haywood and The Female Spectator (2006).

Lynn Scarnati Zvara, "Eliza Haywood and Her Rebellious Pen in Early Modern England." (PhD thesis, Youngstown State University, 1999).

[last updated 6 November 2019]

Tuesday, 1 September 2020

My 2020 Siesta

Normally, after such a long break between posts I'd feel the need for a proportionately long explanation for my silence.

Instead, I'll just say "Covid" and start tidying up this mess by updating some of my more-frequently visited past posts.

But, just to make sure this new post is visible, below is my "state of disaster" and "Stage 4" lock-down recommendation: find a comfortable spot, and read.

As you can see (below), the artist of "La Siesta" or "The Siesta" is Luc Barbut-Davray (1863–1926), an artist who produced many "Boudoir" paintings of pensive female readers.

The Parisian publisher of this postcard is Armand Noyer, who was located at the Boulevard de Strasbourg in Paris from ca.1910 until post-1948. Noyer was a member of the Salon de Paris and photographed paintings for the Salon and other institutions.

The present whereabouts of this 1914 Salon painting is unknown, but a colour version of the postcard was produced at the time (below).

Friday, 27 December 2019

Collecting Haywood, 2019

2019 was a better year for Haywood collecting than I was expecting. I did have better years with a lot less money about a decade back but, as I mentioned in last year's year-in-review post (here), the supply of Haywood material has diminished, so my expectations have been low since at least 2013.

The 2019 highlights are:

[1] Ab.5.1b Injur'd Husband, 2nd ed. (1723) and Ab.7.1a A Wife to Be Lett (1724), bound together in a contemporary binding. Although both are first editions, it seems likely that this is a very rare example of issues of items found in Aa.2.1 The Works of Mrs Eliza Haywood being purchased separately. As the low Spedding Bibliography-numbers indicate, both are very early works by Haywood, and particularly hard to find for this reason. As I mentioned last year, Haywood's plays have been particularly elusive for me, so it was nice to get another copy of A Wife to Be Lett so soon too.

[2] Ab.7.3 Wife to be Lett (1735); my second copy of this edition, but only my third of the play. It is quite worn, but has some wonderful near-contemporary marginalia, which will be gold for the book I am planning on Haywood's readers.

[3] Ab.19.1a Memoirs of the Baron de Brosse, Part 1 (1725) and Ab.19.2 Memoirs of the Baron de Brosse, Part 2 (1726), bound together in a contemporary binding. Also early works; they join my copy of the "Second" edition of Part 1 (Ab.19.1b), so that I now have all editions and issues of Ab.19 MdB.

[4] Ab.59.1a Fortunate Foundling (1744), a first edition (first issue) of one of Haywood's later novels. Again, as I mentioned last year, I did not have any of Haywood's later novels until very recently, so it was great to get another so soon.

[5] Ab.60.1 The Female Spectator (1745), my third set of the first edition, which I describe here.

Also worthy of note are Ab.67.12 L’étourdie, ou histoire de Miss Betsy Tatless (1754), which I did not have. It is quite rare, only two other copies being known to me. I now have copies of all of the French translations of Betsy Thoughtless published between 1754 and 1782; Ab.67.11–16—a bit of a milestone for me. Ab.70.5b The Wife (Boston, 1806), the only issue I was lacking of the Bowdlerised American edition of The Wife—another rarity (only one other copy known) and another milestone. I was also very pleased to find my third copy of Ed.59.18 Edwin and Lucy, in yet-another variant binding (above, right). Finally, this year I got a copy of Clara Reeve's The Progress of Romance (1785), an important early assessment of Haywood's writing.

* * * * *

I still have less than half of the Haywood items I know about, and am well short of matching the British Library collection (which has about 55% of the items known to me). My goal as a collector is to surpass the BL collection, which I hope to do in the next three or four years, not to have a complete collection, which is almost certainly not possible in one life time, even with endless funds. My goal as a scholar has always been to simply to have a useful collection. The collection has already proven to be quite useful—providing me with material for original research and publications—but it is obvious that it will get more useful as it gets larger—so my scholarly and collecting goals remain in agreement: more Haywood items are required!

Rocking Chair Reader, ca. 1910

The young woman in this photo is posed with a book on a plain oak rocking chair. The book can't be identified, and the posture of the "reader" is not suggestive of either a captured private moment, or an attempt to recapture a moment of reading, such as we see in some of the previous photos I have posted. Likewise, while the oval inset croping of the image and the plain background suggests that the photo could have been taken in a studio, I imagine that the former could be requested when printing a negative and the latter is consistent with both the chair and the book, so perhaps this photo was taken at home.

The photo is printed as a real-photo postcard; the recto is well-thumbed (which is why I have cropped it out in the photos above and below); the stamp box on the verso is an "AZO"-type with triangle corners, pointing upwards. According to this site, this paper stock was used from 1904 to 1918. The chair in the photo has turned spindles and bentwood arms—although the legs are not visible, this is a style that was common on rocking chairs. Earlier chairs (rocking, kitchen, and dining chairs) often had pressed wood backs, as you can see here.

Although the plain, wide back of the oak chair has a bit of an early Deco look to me, our "reader" is wearing clothes that are suggestive of an earlier period. (Although long hair and high-neck shirts [without mutton leg shoulders] paired with a lace jabot or cravat were common from the late 1890s until at least 1915.) The binding style of the book was common from the mid-19th century well into the the 20th century, which does not help with narrowing down the date of the photo either.

All considered, there are no very strong indicators of date, location, or identity, and those clues that are present do not work together to offer any clue to the (fairly wide) date range indicated by the stamp box, thus the conservative dating above.

Saturday, 30 November 2019

1940s Sweater Girl, Reading

This is a WW2 period, candid photograph of a young woman reading. She is reclining on a art deco couch, in front of a bookcase, with a window behind her. Our reader has shifted to her left shoulder forward, and her right shoulder back, so that the light streams in over her right shoulder, illuminating the pages in front of her. Her eyes are fixed on the lower, left-hand page of the book she is reading.

The verso is stamped Velox, a common Kodak brand in the 1940s–50s according to David Rudd Cycleback's Photograph Identification Guide. The clothes that our sweater-girl reader is wearing are consistent with late War-period restrictions: a drab skirt with a hemline just below the knee, and only a few pleats (as described here), with a short, flat knit, light-weight sweater blouse (here).

As Debbie, The Vintage Dancer explains: "The term sweater girl started in the 1940s with movie star icon Lana Turner. She, and other young women, wearing snug fitting sweater tops were seen as both innocent and sexy. The modest coverage of the sweater said 'I am a good girl' while the two sizes too small fit said 'I have breasts!'" While to "be so flaunting with a woman’s natural assents was taboo in good company," even a more modest, but still snug fit (as here) "emphasized the ideal ’40s torso which was a thin waist, full shoulders and soft, natural chest."